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Toyota assembly and parts plants

Toyota is the seventh largest company in the world and the second largest manufacturer of automobiles, with production facilities in 28 nations around the world — and the highest-production facility of any non-domestic automaker in the United States. Generally, Japanese plants are flexible and produce multiple models, while foreign (especially American) plants are devoted to a single model.

1968 toyota assembly plant

In June 2006, Toyota had 52 overseas manufacturing companies in 27 countries outside Japan; Toyota markets vehicles in more than 170 countries / regions.

The Toyota Motor Group sold about 8.8 million Toyota/Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino vehicles worldwide in 2006, marking a new record. In 2007, the Group is aiming for a 6 percent increase in worldwide sales. Toyota President Katsuaki Watanabe, in his 2007 new year’s greeting, said that Toyota must implement thorough measures concerning quality and reinforce the foundations of manufacturing by implementing additional localization measures, including human resources development from a global perspective and further support for local affiliates to operate autonomously. Toyota intends to introduce a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that can run on 100% bioethanol in Brazil. The year 2007 will be the 70th anniversary of the establishment of Toyota Motor Corporation.

Toyota recently put special Komatsu stamping equipment into its San Antonia plant; the new presses use a third less energy than the prior stampers, and are quiet enough that employees no longer need sound protection gear. The stamps are smaller as well, so the factory ceilings can be lowered, dramatically cutting heating and cooling costs. The new stamps will be used in all Toyota’s new North American plants, according to Automotive News, and will be retrofitted to older plants. The main difference is the technology, which uses servo motors rather than hydraulics. Toyota is the world’s first automaker to use the new technology.

Toyota plants around the world

North America: United States, Canada, Mexico

See the Texas plant

Toyota's manufacturing and design systems

Models (2002)
Models (2003)
Models (2006) Employees and Capacity (2003)
Fremont, California, US (NUMMI)
Corolla - 157,561
Tacoma - 151,566
Voltz* - 8,108
Pontiac Vibe - 59,552
Total - 369,836
Corolla - 157,561
Tacoma - 161,566
Voltz* - 1,733
Pontiac Vibe - 74,223
Total - 395,083
Total: 428,633
5,600 people
370,000 vehicles
Toyota's first US plant, a joint venture with GM. High quality. 5,400 employees in 2006. Japanese president. Closed in 2010.
Huntsville, Alabama, US
2003 V6 and V8 engines for Tundra and Tacoma
52,318 V8s
  350 people (500 in 2005)
120,000 V8
130,000 V6
Tijuana, Mexico
2002 n/a Tacoma
34,465 Tacomas 150 people (700 in 2004)
30,000 trucks, 180,000 Tacoma beds
Japanese president; expanded in 2007 to capacity of 50,000. 760 employees in 2007.
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada
1987 95,030 Corollas
42,406 Solaras
80,582 Matrix
158,269 engines
135,428 Corollas
78,781 Matrix
13,334 RX330
200,317 I-4 engines


4,230 people
250,000 vehicles
150,000 engines
4,602 employees; North American president. Canada's first Toyota assembly plant, North America's third. (Delta, Long Beach make parts)
Princeton, Indiana, US (TMMI)
1996 109,025 Tundras
77,561 Sequoias
105,663 Tundras
66,671 Sequoias
119,196 Siennas
324,190 Tundras,
4,700 people
500,000 vehicles
2006: 4,645 people; FX-SX starts Q1 2008
Princeton, Indiana (Toyota Motor Mfg) 1996 n/a 4-speed Camry automatics
5-speed Sienna, RX330 automatics
Corolla/Matrix/Vibe engines
  360,000 transmissions  
Georgetown, Kentucky (US) 1986 Avalon
Camry Solara
Camry Solara

Camry Hybrid

6,900 employees
500,000 vehicles
500,000 engines
Toyota’s largest facility outside of Japan; highest production of any foreign plant in the US. Also builds four and six cylinder engines and powertrain parts. American president. Builds Toyota’s first American-made hybrid.
Buffalo, West Virginia (US)
  201,273 Fours
152,070 V6s
360,957 Trans
225,402 Fours
171,808 V6s
382,510 Trans
  930 people
340,000 Fours
200,000 Sixes
360,000 Trans
Builds four cylinder and V6 engines and automatic transmissions. Started making automatic transmission gears in 2006.
Delta, B.C. (Canadian Autoparts Toyota) 1983 Wheels Wheels   1.45 million wheels Makes aluminum alloy wheels for the North American and Japanese markets. “CAPTIN”
Long Beach, CA (TABC)   Parts (see description) Parts (see description)   Not listed Toyota’s first U.S. manufacturing plant; produces sheet metal components, steering columns, catalytic converters, and coated catalytic substrates for US and export. Assembles commercial trucks for Hino Motors to be sold in North America and beginning in 2005, will assemble 4-cylinder engines.
San Antonia, TX (TMMTX) 2006 None One Tundra per minute starting in 2007   2,100 people in 2007 $1.3 billion plant, capacity 200,000/year, production started Nov 2006.
Blue Springs, Mississippi 2010? None 150,000 Highlanders per year starting in 2010   2,000 people in 2010 $1.3 billion plant started in 2007, near Tupelo
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada
1987 95,030 Corollas
42,406 Solaras
80,582 Matrix
158,269 engines
135,428 Corollas
78,781 Matrix
13,334 RX330
200,317 I-4 engines
  4,230 people
250,000 vehicles
150,000 engines
Ontario, Canada 2009?         New plant to build RAV4

* Exported to Japan

Note: this list does not include such support systems as Toyota Tsusho America (mostly logistics - import and export. Tsusho is Japanese for trading). Their basic business is acting as a logistics service for Toyota. In Georgetown they have a steel division that imports steel for TMMK directly or to various customers who then form/cut/etc. and then resell to TMMK. Another section deals mainly with car parts imported from the parent company in Japan, Toyota Tsusho Corporation. They warehouse and/or crossdock to our customers, the main ones being TMMK subsidiaries or suppliers. Another section imports fabric and upholstery and has a die/cut operation. Another section orders and supplies service parts for the TMMK plant lines to keep them up and running. "Our current President is Takashi Hasegawa and Vice President is Yoshiki Miura." Thanks to Judith Jansen for pointing out the absence of Georgetown and letting us known about Tsusho.

Thanks to Ali Robinson for pointing to a more current resources which led us to fix Kentucky information and add Delta, B.C. and Long Beach, CA.

Toyota Canada Inc. (TCI) is in Toronto, with regional offices in Vancouver, Calgary, Montreal and Halifax. Toyota parts and accessories are distributed through TCI’s Parts Distribution Centres in Toronto and Vancouver. Three Toyota models - the Corolla, Matrix, and Camry Solara - are built in Canada by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc. in Cambridge Ontario.

Europe and Africa

Toyota first entered the United Kingdom in 1992, and currently employees nearly 3,000 people there. The Avensis and Corolla are made at Burnaston (near Derby), and engines are made at Deeside, North Wales. The Bernaston plant, Toyota’s first auto assembly plant in Europe, can make up to 220,000 cars per year.

Toyota seems satisfied with its British factories, despite the strength of the pound against the euro. Toyota argued that, while other companies (particularly Ford) are moving to continental Europe to get better exchange rate, Toyota was happy with the efficiency of its British plants, particularly the Burnaston factory.

TMC = Toyota Motor Corp., TEMA = Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America,Inc., TICO = Toyota Industries Corp.

Location Name Start of operations Toyota
Products Number of employees 2006 production
Czech Republic Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech (TPCA) * Feb. 2005 TMC 50%
Peugeot-Citroën 50%
Aygo 3,345 100,000
France Toyota Motor Manufacturing France S.A.S. (TMMF) Jan. 2001 TME 100% Yaris, engines 3,829 250,000 Yaris
192,000 engines
Kenya Associated Vehicle Assemblers Ltd. Aug. 1977 None Hiace, Land Cruiser 360 1,000
Poland Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland (TMMP) Apr. 2002 TME 94.3% Transmissions, engines 1,982 331,000 transmissions
102,000 engines

Poland Toyota Motor Industries Poland (TMIP) Mar. 2005 TME 60%
TICO 40%
Engines 932 45,000
Portugal Toyota Caetano Portugal. Aug. 1968 TMC 27% Dyna, Hiace, Optimo 950 4,000
Russia Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia (TMMR) Dec. 2007 TMC 80%
EBRD 20%
Camry 600
South Africa Toyota South Africa Motors Jun-62 TMC 75.0% Corolla, Dyna, Hiace, Hilux, Fortuner, engines 8,690 147,000 vehicles
96,000 engines
Turkey Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey (TMMT) Sep. 1994 TME 90%
Mitsui 10%
Corolla 3,421 177,000
U.K. Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) (TMUK) Sep. 1992 TME 100% Avensis, Corolla, engines 4,897 282,000 vehicles
175,000 engines

Toyota Asian factories (outside of Japan)

toyota parts depot, 1968

TMC = Toyota Motor Corp., TEMA = Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America,Inc., TICO = Toyota Industries Corp.


Name Start of operations TMC-related equity Products Number of employees 2006 production
Tianjin Jinfeng Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TJAC) July 1997 TMC 30% Steering assy, propeller shafts 410
Tianjin Fengjin Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TFAP) May 1998 TMC 90% Continuous velocity joints, axles 350
Tianjin FAW Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (TFTE) Jul 1998 TMC 50% Engines 800 134,000 engines
Tianjin Toyota Forging Co., Ltd. (TTFC) Dec 1998 TMC 100% Forging parts 100
Tianjin FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (TFTM) Oct 2002 TMC 40%
TMCI 10%
Corolla, Vios, Crown, Reiz 2,310 209,000
FAW Toyota (Changchun) Engine Co., Ltd. (FTCE) Dec 2004 TMC 50% Engines 250
Toyota FAW (Tianjin) Dies Co., Ltd. (TFTD) Dec 2004 TMC 90% Stamping dies for vehicles 160
Guangqi Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (GTE) Jan 2005 TMC 57.6%
TMCI 12.4%
Engines, engine parts (cams, cranks) 50
Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (SFTM) * Dec 2000 TMC 45%
TTC 5%
Coaster, Land Cruiser, Prado, Prius 1,800 16,000
Guangzhou Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (GTMC) May 2006 TMC 30.5%
TMCI 19.5%
Camry 1,400 61,000

Other Asia

Location Name Start of operations TMC-related equity Products Number of employees 2006 production
Bangladesh Aftab Automobiles* June 1982 None?! Land Cruiser 110
Taiwan Kuozui Motors, Ltd. Jan 1986 TMC 51.7% Camry, Corolla, Hiace, Vios, Zace, Wish, Yaris, engines, stamping parts 2,486 97,000
India Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Ltd.(TKM) Dec 1999 TMC 89% Innova, Corolla 2,567 44,000
India Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Private Ltd.(TKAP) July 2002 TMC 64%
TICO 26%
Axles, propeller shafts, transmissions 742
Indonesia PT. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia May 1970 TMC 95% Dyna, Fortuner, Innova, Kijang, engines 3,949 60,000 cars
233,000 engines
Indonesia P.T. Astra Daihatsu Motor Jan 1992 TMC 61.75% Avanza 5,045 63,000
Malaysia Assembly Services Sdn. Bhd (ASSB) Feb 1968 UMW Toyota 100% Camry, Corolla, Vios, Hiace, engines, Hilux, Innova, Fortuner 3,232 54,000 cars
11,000 engines
Malaysia Perodua Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd Aug. 1994 TMC 51% Avanza 6,486 28,000
Pakistan Indus Motor Company Ltd.* Mar. 1993 TMC 12.5%
TTC 12.5%
Corolla, Hilux 1,651 35,000
Philippines Toyota Autoparts Philippines Inc. (TAP) Sep. 1992 TMC 95% Transmissions, continuous velocity joints 578 221,000 transmissions
Philippines Toyota Motor Philippines Corp. (TMP) Feb. 1989 TMC 34% Camry, Corolla, Innova 1,289 14,000
Thailand Siam Toyota Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Jul 1989 TMC 96% Engines, propeller shafts, casting (block, head) 1,219 404,000 engines
Thailand Toyota Auto Body Thailand Co., Ltd. May 1979 TMT 49% Stamping parts 141
Thailand Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd. (TMT) Dec 1964 TMC 86.4% Camry, Corolla, Vios, Wish, Hilux VIGO, Yaris 6,172 410,000
Thailand Thai Auto Work Co., Ltd. (TAW) May 1988 TABJ 20.0%
TABT 60.0%
Fortuner, Hilux VIGO 477 60,000
Vietnam Toyota Motor Vietnam Co., Ltd. Aug 1996 TMC 70% Camry, Corolla, Vios, Hiace, Land Cruiser, Innova 712 14,000

* Produces vehicles other than Toyotas, too.

Toyota plants in South America

Location Name Start of operations TMC-related equity Products Number of employees 2006 production
Argentina Toyota Argentina 1997 100% Hilux, Fortuner 2,523 65,000
Brazil Toyota do Brasil 1959 100% Components 2,525  
Brazil Toyota do Brasil 1998 100% Corolla 60,000
Colombia Sociedad de Fabricacion de Automores 1992 28% Land Cruiser Prado 1,316 7,000
Venezuela Toyota de Venezuela 1981 90% Corolla, Dyna, Land Cruiser, Fortuner, Hilux 1,708 23,000

The Brazilian plants are Sao Bernardo do Campo-Sao Paulo and Indaiatuba-Sao Paulo; the former is for components, the latter for cars. Indaiatubo built the Fielder until 2008.

Toyota’s factories in Japan

motomachi toyota plant

Name Main products Start of Operations Number of Employees Equity share (%)
Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc. Harrier, Harrier Hybrid, Kluger, Kluger Hybrid, IS, ES 1992 4,191 100
Toyota Motor Hokkaido, Inc. Transmissions, transfers, aluminum wheels, drivetrain parts, etc. 1992 1,702 100
Toyota Motor Tohoku Co., Ltd. Mechanical and electronic parts 1998 237 100
Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd. Hiace, Liteace, Voxy, Noah, Estima, Prius, Land Cruiser, Alphard, Ipsum, Townace, Regiusace, Coaster, Estima Hybrid, Alphard Hybrid, LX470 1945 10,628 56.03
Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. Century, Crown, Corolla Spacio, Corolla Fielder, Isis, Belta, SC, Auris, BLADE 1946 5,528 50.08
Central Motor Co., Ltd. Raum, MR-S, Scion xB, Corolla Axio, Corolla hatchbacks 1950 1,194 77
Gifu Auto Body Industry Co., Ltd. Hiace 1940 958 47.71
Daihatsu Motor,Co., Ltd. Rush, Passo, Probox, Succeed, bB, Porte, SIENTA 1907 11,209 51.19
Hino Motors, Ltd. Dyna, Townace, Liteace, FJ Cruiser, Toyoace, Hilux Surf 1942 9,507 50.11
Toyota Industries Corp. Vitz, RAV4 1926 10,584 23.51
Tahara plant Lexus ? ? 100
  We know there are more, would anyone care to contribute?      

The Lexus plant in Tahara, which builds the Lexus LS 600 and its engines, was recently profiled by Automotive News (July 9, 2007). To build the LS 600 h, workers are trained continuously and recertified every four months at various skill levels; every detail of the cars is manually checked and rechecked. Even color shading and tints are checked by individuals. Workers learn to pick up the right number of bolts each time and do finger-strength exercises; they are trained to hear when bolts are torqued correctly. The training center, with 50 trainers and assistant trainers, uses lectures and computer-aided instruction. No less than 26,000 operations are checked at the plant. Workers must be clean to avoid having dirt get into the cars, with those in semiconductor areas going through an air shower to get to the clean rooms. Each and every LS 600 h produced is test-driven to make sure that the car tracks in a straight line at 56 mph, to ensure that no unwanted noises are there, and that everything reacts well under hard braking and acceleration. Two hundred inspectors look for scratches on car bodies, twice as many as in a normal Toyota plant; 4,000 points are checked on each car. Robots also take over 1,200 photos of each car to find scratches that people might miss. Both people and machines check gaps and assure that body and interior panels are perfect. Paint colors are inspected under different types of light.

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